An interesting web site if you are doing and research is Grace’s guide. As they say on the web page, ‘Grace’s guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in the UK. The scope is gradually being extended to include non-UK businesses and biographies. Additions are being made to the information daily by a team of volunteers who give freely of their time and expertise.’
Click below to be taken there.
Hayward Brothers of Borough – A Potted History
When you start looking at coal-holes and light wells, it’s not long before the name of Hayward starts to crop up with regularity. Other manufacturers may have a local presence but the ‘Hayward Brothers of Borough’ are the one company that seem to be represented throughout London. Their range of designs and the slightly differing format and versions of the company name hint enticingly at a chronology that might allow for dating of individual items so it was with this in mind that I thought I would have a look and see if I could find out a little more about the company itself.
The first avenue of enquiry was of a possible company history, the sort that tends to be produced to mark a hundred years of successful trading, and after a bit of poking about I found that Hayward Brothers had indeed published such a book entitled ‘Years of Reflection 1783-1953’. At the time the only copy I could find was priced at an eye-watering £150 which was a bit more than my casual interest could afford! However, chasing up a few more links led me to a fascinating site called GlassIan This site dealt, not surprisingly, with all things glass and had a whole section devoted to the Hayward brothers, including the entire text of ‘Years of Reflection’! At over a hundred pages it’s not really the sort of thing you’d sit down to read in full so I thought I’d provide a Q&A summary for those of us whose interest in the company is more on the casual side…
Who exactly were the Hayward Brothers?
The brothers were William and Edward Hayward, part of a notable family of glaziers and glass-cutters, who made the move into the ironmongery trade when they bought the business of Robert Henly in 1848. Robert Henly was an iron work specialist who had also been producing coalholes amongst other items (making an R. Henly coalhole one for me to look out for!) but ill-health had led him to sell his business.
The address of 187 – 189 Union Street Borough often appears on the coal holes. Is this where they were made?
There are several addresses associated with the company and a couple of them appear on the coalholes. When William and Edward bought the business Henly was trading from 117 and 118 Union Street, Borough. Coincidentally the brothers had been running their own business from a cornershop on Blackfriars Road and also numbered 117, but this was abandoned in 1857 when they decided to concentrate on wholesale rather than retail. A lease was taken out from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for 187 & 189 Union Street and later on, in 1875, as business expanded
… the two houses, 191 and 193, next to 187/189, Union Street were acquired and adapted to meet the needs of manufacture.
This address also appears on coalholes and, to answer a query I have asked in previous postings regarding the setting up of foundry works, it is plain that indeed the Hayward Brothers did all their own castings on site until
“To simplify manufacture, it was arranged to form a separate company, the Southwark Foundry Company, whose functions would be to make iron castings required by Hayward Brothers and Eckstein. For this purpose, a site was purchased in Orange Street, off Union Street, adjoining the firm’s premises.
Here, a new foundry was built equipped with the most modern facilities and the latest types of plant. Haywards’ own works, although efficient and extensive, had necessarily grown up bit by bit from the days of Glover and Henly in their single cottage. Such development lacked cohesion and the advantages of overall planning and design. These, it was determined, the new foundry should possess.”
By 1921 the Borough works were proving to be too cramped yet again and a new factory was created in Enfield, but some work was still retained at the core of the Borough site, as much, it seems because of the well known link to the area as for any economic reason.
What was the link between Hayward Brothers and the Dog and Pot symbol? The statue of a dog licking out a three legged cooking pot had probably started out as a pub sign, but somehow found its way above an ironmongers shop in Blackfriars Road. It became a noted landmark associated with the ironmongery trade and seems to have been inherited by several different companies over the years as a result of mergers and purchases, one of the last being the Hayward brothers.
“Little time was lost in adapting Henly’s business to their own ideas. New brooms sweep clean. The Dog’s Head in the Pot premises became the offices and showrooms and the foundry in Union Street, completely re-built and modernised by Henly six years earlier, was converted to new uses. The ancient sign seems to have captivated the brothers for they immediately adopted it as their trade mark on all bill-headings and advertisements, and where appropriate on the articles they made.”
The sign also appears on the coal hole covers of J. W. Cunningham of 196 Blackfriars Road, a company that in all probability inherited the original premises from the Hayward Brothers.
What is so significant about the Hayward Brothers light well?
The real fortune of Hayward Brothers came not from jobbing iron-work or coalholes, but from the development and patenting of a semi-prismatic pavement light. Impressed? Well up until the company hit the jackpot with this particular patent cellars had been one are of a house or factor that had been particularly difficult to illuminate. Open grills let in some light, but also the elements, whilst merely inserting discs of glass gave a very poor quality of light. The Hayward Brothers idea (and more importantly, patent) was to take a prism of glass and to slice it in two – hence ‘semi-prismatic’. This had the effect of bending the incoming light 90 degrees so that it would throw light into the darkest corners of the cellar. For both factories and homes this was a huge improvement and opened up large new areas for exploitation at very little cost. The illustration from the book explains the principle.
With this design the Brothers were able to combine their knowledge of both iron and glass to establish a real innovation and the source of much of the company’s success. There were numerous designs and variations and the 1920’s even saw them follow the new trend for concrete with their trademark Crete-O-Lux system which was used in much of the redevelopment of Regent Street. Coincidentally, now that the Union Street building had concreting facilities, some of the coalholes started to feature this new material as well.
Typical example of an iron-framed semi-prismatic light well used to illuminate the cellar of a small establishment. Several of these prisms have been damaged over the years which probably means the cellar is a little more gloomy than it need be!
What about the coal hole plates?
Having inherited the coal hole business from R. Henly the Hayward Brothers continued to produce them as a steady earner on the ironmongery side. I don’t have a full listing of all their designs but this quote gives an idea as to the available range
Coal plates, of which there had been six types in 1865 from solid iron and ventilating to those fitted with glass lenses, had received some undesirable publicity and a greater margin of safety was urged by the highway authorities. Sixteen designs, illuminating or semi-illuminating, were included in the lists at this time. Some were fitted with a safety chain and ring, which Haywards recommended to builders and architects in preference to earlier and cheaper types.
There does seem to be a definite ‘house style’ and I will be doing a Hayward Brothers Retrospective to see if I can pull together some of the elements and design features developed over the years.
Talking of coal-holes, there are a large number of Hayward Safety Plates around. Why was that?
Coal plates which were just discs placed over a hole could be dangerous either through slipping on them in wet or icy weather (hence the patterns of grooves and incisions), or through being left open or unfastened either in error or by children playing in the streets. The following examples were provided in Years of Reflection
“DANGEROUS COAL PLATES,” The Builder published the following paragraph:
“On Monday evening, Mr. Bedford held an inquest on the body of Mrs. Sarah Flower, of 41 Guilford Street, Russell Square. The deceased was walking along Guilford Street when she slipped through a coal trap outside No. 43, the plate of which had been left unfastened. The occupier of No. 43 was called and disclaimed all knowledge of the insecurity of the plate but admitted that three-fourths of the plates in the neighborhood were unfastened. Verdict: Accidental death.”
The Daily Telegraph reported an incident, which painful though it must have been to the unfortunate victim at the time, is not without humour. “Sir P. C. Owen was but just able to make his appearance, and apologise for not attending her Majesty round the interesting exhibition. This gentlemen is suffering from the effects of a street accident to which all pedestrians are daily liable. Sir Philip happened to step, a short time ago, on an unfastened iron plate over a coal-cellar, the treacherous guard slipped aside, and his leg went down the opening, with such injurious result that, though he fought against the pain for a day or two, he has been obliged to take to his couch, whence he rose yesterday to wait first upon the Queen and, at a later hour, on the Prince and Princess of Wales.”
The scene of Sir Philips’ mishap is not revealed but the Haywards were not blind to such reports and their effect upon business. They stated emphatically that the coal plates manufactured by them prevented such accidents, adding a long list of thirty-three famous thoroughfares in the heart of London where Haywards’ coal plates were used throughout. Russell Square, where Mrs. Flower met her heath, was among them but to make it quite clear it was not one of their plates which caused her death they limited their claim to “Part Russell Square.”
The Safety Plate was a lock and twist affair that prevented such unfortunate mishaps but was as much a PR exercise as anything else designed to re-assure a nervous public.
Are Hayward Brothers still in existence?
Alas, the company seems to have ceased trading in the 1970’s, which co-incidentally is when the Smokeless Fuel Acts and the big switch to gas central heating probably put paid to the coal-hole business. So they were there at the start, and they were there at the end…
Bill-heading showing the company’s ‘Dog and Pot’ logo
Thanks to this blog for the excellent article, thanks to the Yelf family.
The Faded London blog can be found here, click below.
James Pudifin was born in about 1845 and was listed in the 1881 census as a Master blacksmith employing two men and three boys.
Bickle and co. Plymouth.
These works are situated at the Great Western Docks, having been established in 1887 for carrying out general engineering work. The principal productions comprise pumping and winding machinery, Chilian mills, Cornish crushers, air-compressors, and general mining requisites. The ” Bickle ” rock drill, a speciality of this firm, has proved a very simple and most effective machine. They also manufacture marine and Lancashire boilers, the latter up to 7 feet 6 inches diameter by 30 feet long. A considerable business is done in marine-engine and ship repairs, the premises being at the waterside, and adjoining large graving docks. The works are at present engaged in the manufacture of a triple-expansion mill-engine of 250 I.H.P., using steam at 200 lbs. pressure; also large Cornish crushers, air-compressors and rock-drilling machinery. The number of men employed is about 170.
J. Blakeborough & Sons Ltd
were a large engineering company established by Joseph Blakeborough in 1866 and whose core business had been the design and manufacture of industrial water valves. Most of this work was specialised and of bespoke manufacture for the control of liquid flow.
They had a large works and foundry at Brighouse in West Yorkshire that included ancillary works which in addition to their valves, also made cast-iron fire hydrant and manhole covers as well as fire fighting equipment during the 1920’s and 1930’s. During WW2 (early 1940’s) the company used their foundry to produce track links for British made tanks. In 1965 the company was bought over by Hopkinsons Holdings of Huddersfield, also specialists in the manufacture of industrial valves. The fortunes of Blakeborough’s became more uncertain and a devastating fire in 1986 made their situation worse. In 1987 a partnership was formed with Wolstenholme Valves, a recent company set up by Chris Wolstenholme and a subsidiary of Hopkinsons Holdings at the time. The Blakeborough works at Brighouse was closed on 12th April 1989 and all drawings and intellectual rights transferred to GA (Golden Anderson) Valves, Hopkinsons and Blackhall Engineering, who were all part of the Weir Group plc. Although valves ceased to be made under the Blakeborough name, these companies retained the drawings and rights to supply spares, maintain and refurbish old Blakeborough valve systems still in operation.
The photos below were kindly supplied by Stewart Williams
Initiated in 1982, as Carnation Enterprise Pvt. Ltd, the Company has come to be known as Carnation Industries Limited since 1995.
The Company initially started off as a merchant exporter firm and made a gradual shift into manufacturing by the mid-eighties and today has three Grey Iron foundries and one Ductile Iron unit in West Bengal. Apart from being certified by SGS (India) Ltd for systems approval & specific product approvals, Carnation is also India’s first Conventional Grey Iron foundry to be certified ISO 9002:1994 by KPMG (USA).
Ellacott and sons, Plymouth
Plymouth foundry, Millbay. Established before 1832, owners John E.Mare & Co. Feb 1871 sold to Messrs.Ellacott & Son, closed ‘some years later’.
Garton and King. 1895
Garton and King Ltd are listed at the Exeter Foundry, Waterbeer Street in Kelly’s directory for 1939. The firm can be traced back to 1661 when John Atken, former apprentice ironmonger to Thomas Dixe, ran an ironmonger’s shop at the top of Fore Street at the sign of the Golden Hammer. On his retirement in 1698 John Southcombe from Chudleigh took the business. In 1706 he took as apprentice Lewis Portbury who married Elizabeth, Southcombe’s niece in 1708. Southcombe purchased ironware from Abraham Darby who from 1709 produced higher quality iron in a coke-fired furnace at Coalbrookdale using a new process which produced thinner castings that rivalled brass for the manufacture of pots and other hollow ware.
Southcombe died in 1724, and left Lewis Portbury his business. Portbury served a number of offices in the City and on his death in 1732 was succeeded by his son, also named Lewis. He sold basket-grates for burning coal and by 1740 hob-grates with a roasting spit as well as coffee pots, urns, tea-kitchens, cast iron plough-shares and agricultural tools. Like his father he served several offices, including sheriff in 1746 and mayor in 1748. On his death in 1766 the business at the sign of the Golden Hammer, four doors above the Conduit in Fore Street was sold to William Britnall who became bankrupt within a year.
In 1768 Samuel Kingdon took over the business, opening a warehouse in Theatre Lane in 1787 and issuing a halfpenny token in 1792. His widow Jane continued his business after his death in 1797 being joined by sons Samuel and William as Kingdon & Sons in 1804. The manufacture of iron products was increased in a building in Waterbeer Street known as the Old Guildhall. The foundry introduced a steam engine to drive the bellows, producing higher temperatures and better quality. Gas lighting was introduced in the premises in 1813, two years before the general introduction of gas to the City. In 1816, Jane Kingdon died leaving the business in the sole charge of her two sons. In October 1826 the foundry was destroyed by fire, the insurance payment from the West of England Insurance Company being Ł1,500. The foundry was re-established in the former Episcopal Charity School, also in Waterbeer Street. Samuel Kingdon (“Iron Sam”) was Mayor of Exeter in 1836, and William, Sheriff in 1842.
In 1849 on the retirement of Samuel and William Kingdon, the business was sold to the partnership of Ambrose Parker Jarvis and John Garton, trading as Garton & Jarvis. Since 1836 they had specialised in wrought-iron work, gates, railings, grates, and fenders. At the time of the sale, Kingdon & Sons had developed an expertise in greenhouse heating. At the Great Exhibition of 1851, Garton & Jarvis won two bronze medals for their stoves, and a commendation from Prince Albert, who had installed ‘Cottage’ stoves in his Model Cottages in Hyde Park. They now were able to use the arms of Royal Appointment. Many wrought iron gates and railings from Garton & Jarvis were installed around Exeter, including the Cathedral Green, the Royal Clarence and the Deer Stalker statue in Northernhay Park until the 1939-45 War when much was removed. They were also pioneers in the production of coil and cast-iron radiators.
In 1865, after the death of Ambrose Jarvis, John Gould King from Barnstaple became a partner and the firm continued as Garton & King. John Garton died two years later – a new partner named Munk briefly joined the firm creating King & Munk, but the partnership was soon dissolved, and the Garton & King name reinstated. When in 1898 Hugo Holladay from Kent joined into a partnership with John King the name ofthe firm remained unchanged. When John King died in 1900, he was joined by his brother Edgar Holladay. The output of the foundry dwindled but the business survived the 1914-18 War and in 1924 was registered as a limited liability company. In the 1920s the foundry expanded once more, producing parts for gas stoves and contract work for small builders and councils.
When Hugo Holladay retired in 1933, the shop at 190 High Street was vacated after 270 years and the Golden Hammer was hung over the Waterbeer Street foundry. In 1936 the City served a compulsory purchase order on the foundry, to make way for a new Civic Centre. A new foundry was built in Tan Lane, St Thomas, and a showroom opened at Central Station. The foundry was very active during the 1939-45 War, and also assisted the foundry of Parkin & Sons, when they were bombed out. Edgar Holladay died in 1943 and his bother Hugo in 1946. The company continued under Henry and Alec Hugo Holladay. The Central Station premises were vacated in 1957 and a new showroom opened in North Street. The Tan Lane foundry closed and in 2007 Garton King Appliances concentrates on selling and installing Aga and Rayburn cookers from their showrooms in North Street and Darts Farm Village.
Guest and Chrimes
Foundry and Brass Works, Rotherham, and, represented by Thomas Beggs of 37 Southampton Street, Strand, London, WC.
1843 Company established by Chrimes Brothers. Later became Chrimes, Neatby and Co.
1847 Taken over (it is thought) by Guest and Chrimes
1856 Manufactured water meter to William Siemens’s design
1857 Richard Chrimes, of Brass Works, Rotherham, was elected to membership of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, proposed by C. W. Siemens and seconded by W. Fairbairn; he remained a member until 1889.
1862 Acquired William Crosley’s gas apparatus and meter manufactory in Southwark Bridge Road.
1871 Richard Chrimes employed 400 hands
1873 After a lengthy dispute with the Birmingham brass workers union, the union proposed to set up a co-operative at Masbro in direct competition with the company.
1879 The town boundary was to be extended and would include the works, which would increase the rates paid and prevent the company draining into the river. Mr Eckholme, the general manager of the company, suggested he could devise a cheaper drainage scheme.
1914 Foundry and General Brass Works. Specialities: Chrimes’ High-Pressure Loose Valve Cocks, Guest and Chrimes’ Improved Sluice Valves (body cast in one piece), Siemens and Adamson’s Water Meter, Reservoir Valves and Fittings, Fire-Extinguishing Apparatus, General Plumbers’ Goods, Gas Fittings including High-Power Lamps, Wet and Dry Gas Meters. Employees 400.
1917 Private company.
1922 Their secretary Mr. T. W. Bottoms retired after forty-two years’ service with the firm and was succeeded by Mr A. L. Guilmant.
1961 Hydraulic engineers, producing sluice valves, water meters, penstocks and brasswork required in waterworks construction. 500 employees.
Many manhole covers in France, and increasingly in many other counties, bear the brand name PAM with its distinctive bridge trade mark. The new Princesshay development in Exeter installed some of their products in 2007. They are manufactured by Saint-Gobain PAM, a metallurgy company which is a branch of Saint-Gobain Canalisation. The birth of the enterprise was in 1854 when the discovery of iron ore deposits was made in Lorraine at Marbache, in Meurthe-et-Moselle. The factory at Pont-à-Mousson (hence the initials PAM) was founded in 1856 and the first cast-iron water-main was produced in 1866. During the 19th century the firm supplied many towns in France and Europe with iron water mains and in 1886 the creation of the Société Anonyme des Hauts-Fourneaux et Fonderies de Pont-à-Mousson reflected the main area of activity of the firm – cast ironwork. Activities spread to South America in 1937. In 1970, bringing together several industrial firms in France, Germany and Brazil, Pont-à-Mousson S.A. merged with the Compagnie de SAINT-GOBAIN. International development continued from the 1980s, spreading to Spain, to Great Britain, to Asia in 1997 and to South Africa in 1998. In 2006 Saint-Gobain Canalisation employed more than 9,000 persons world-wide, of which 2,850 were employed by Saint-Gobain-PAM. A visit to the town in 2007 ascertained that the firm had full order books for the next four years.
Thanks to Manhole miscellany for this article, find the article here. PAM
J. Stone and Co.
Marine, railway and general engineers, of Deptford, London, SE14 and Ocean House, Cockspur Street, London, SW1. Telephone: New Cross 1202. Telegraphic Address: “Tostones, Nucros, London”.
1842 J. Stone and Co was founded by Josiah Stone, George Preston, and John Prestige.
1892 Read a description of their works at The Engineer 1892/02/26.
1903 Introduced the Stone-Lloyd automatic bulkhead doors for ships
1904 The company was registered on 7 May as a private company, J Stone and Company Ltd, to acquire the business of J. Stone and Co, brass, copper and iron workers, and mechanical and general engineers, of Deptford.
1905 The family offered shares in the company to the public. The company had many thousands of customers including many navies, shipping companies, the principal British railway companies, shipbuilding companies, and locomotive and railway carriage builders. They were the sole manufacturers for the UK and Colonies of the Stone-Lloyd system of hydraulically operated watertight doors for ships.
1912 Took control of Hart Accumulator Co Ltd.
1926 M. C. L. and Repetition Ltd was set up by J. Stone and Co, Hart Accumulator Co and D. P. Battery Co to manufacture “repetition” parts (principally nuts and bolts) but also made magnetos on a small scale.
1927 Agreement with S.A.F.T. regarding alkaline batteries.
1928 National Accumulator Co was formed to hold all the shares in D. P. Battery Co and a major interest in Hart Accumulator Co; the company was owned by J. Stone and Co and other competitors.
1929 Patent – Improvements in the electrolytic deposition of metal on metal tubes.
1929 Chloride Electrical Storage Co acquired National Accumulator Co. Agreement with Chloride Electrical Storage Co relating to batteries for train lighting which prohibited Stones from making lead-acid and alkaline batteries and assigned to Chloride the agreement with S.A.F.T. regarding alkaline batteries; Chloride was to supply these to Stones.
1934 The Thames was home to specialists in propellors – J. Stone and Co at Deptford and Charlton made 4 of the largest propellors ever made for vessel #534 being constructed on the Clyde; Manganese Bronze and Brass Co made the other four.
1936 Demonstration of air conditioning for railway coaches by J. Stone and Co Ltd.
1937 Patent – Improvements in and connected with copper alloys or bronzes.
1937 Listed Exhibitor – British Industries Fair. Comprehensive range of P.I.V. Positive, Infinitely Variable Speed Gears, ratios 6-1 up to 15 hp. H-R Reduction Gears, ratios 8-1, up to 100,000-1. Combined applications of P.I.V. and H-R Gears. (Stand No. D.310).
1937 Founders in non-ferrous alloys, engineers. “Ceralumium” High Tensile Aluminium Alloys. “Superston L189” Aluminium Bronze.
1946 Formed Stone-Fry Magnesium Ltd with Fry’s Diecastings Ltd for the manufacture of pressure die-castings in magnesium.
1950 Reconstruction of J. Stone and Co to be a holding company; formation of 2 subsidiaries to handle business: J. Stone and Co (Charlton) Ltd (railway air conditioning) and J. Stone and Co (Deptford) Ltd (marine propellors); the existing subsidiaries Stone-Wallwork Ltd and Stone Platt Engineering Co Ltd, which had complementary activities, would be merged into one, namely Stone-Wallwork, which would handle the mechanical engineering products; Stone-Platt would be liquidated.
1951 Private company (presumably this relates to a subsidiary rather than the main company which continued as a public company).
1956 Chance Brothers’ engineering division was acquired by J. Stone and Co (Holdings) Ltd.
1957 Bull’s Metal and Marine, makers of propellors and ship windows, was a subsidiary of J. Stone and Co (Holdings) Ltd.
1958 Bull’s Metal and Marine, makers of propellors and ship windows, was a subsidiary of J. Stone and Co (Holdings) Ltd.
1958 Scheme of arrangement to effect a merger between Platt Brothers and Co (Holdings) and J. Stone and Co (Holdings); Stones became a wholly owned subsidiary of Platts; the company name was changed to Stone-Platt Industries.
1961 Railway, electrical and general engineers specialising in the manufacture of train lighting, air conditioning and refrigeration, speed indicators, automatic voltage regulators, semi-conductor power rectifiers, hydraulic power transmissions, pantographs, package type steam generators and non-ferrous nails and rivets.
Sorry forgot where this article came from, but thanks.
James Willcocks and sons, Millwrights and Iron founders. Lower Town, Buckfastleigh, Devonshire.
Willey and sons, Exeter.
The largest employer during the late 19th and 20th century in Exeter was Willey’s Foundry of Water Lane. At their height they employed over a 1000 workers, turning out the majority of gas meters in the country. They also were an important producer of munitions and equipment in both world wars. This important company in the life of the city, for most of the 19th and 20th centuries, was created by Henry Frederick Willey, a man from humble origins.
Willoughby Brothers, 1866
The Willoughby Bros shipbuilding yard was based in Plymouth, Devon, England. It had a 200 foot berth, an engine works and a foundry. It mainly built tugs, coasters, Saltash ferries and Blackpool excursion steamers.
1897 Novel refuse destructor invented by S. Willoughby of Chiswick, a partner in the firm; the destructor was installed at Lewisham
It was sold to new owners at the end of the nineteenth century
1920s Company closed in the 1920s.
Sorry, can’t remember where I got this article from but thanks to whoever it was.